Spherical molecules
Plantary Model: Planetary Mechanics*
Published 1997 (In Web 2002).

Of ferman: Fernando Mancebo Rodriguez--- Personal page.

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Structure of the Spherical molecules
Planetary and visual model

Author's considerations:
"The magnetic polarity N-S which structure and contains every atom and molecule (which they use for their alignment, attraction and coupling), as well as the ease vision of planetary bonds
make this model a very simple and fun way to understand and build molecules and chemical structures.
Furthermore, this planetary model occurs at all levels of the Cosmos, be it atomic, stellar, etc. ".

* Planetary Mechanics
Essentially, planetary mechanics would consist of the conjunction and interrelation of the magnetic and gravitational fields that any great material nucleus produces around it, which when rotating on itself (spinning) create stationary magnetic orbits and gravitational layers (valence), which need and try to be occupied by orbital ones (electrons, planets , etc.) to achieve their complete balance state, those which define the magnitude and extent of the planetary system.
And of course, the rules and formulas to measure the above principles and fundamentals.(formulas in atomic model)

From my studies on cosmology we can get some considerations in the molecules structuring, reaching the conclusion for my part that most of the biological molecular structures have spherical and not cyclic form, as it was believed up to now.

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Magnetic orbits and gravitational layers

This cosmic model considers that both atomic nuclei and stars produce magnetic and gravitational fields around them, and when the nuclei and their fields rotate, they are forced to deform into a spiral way and form gravitational layers (valence layers) and electro-magnetic orbits.
Both one and the other tend to be completed, that is, the magnitude or mass of the nucleus defines the potential and dimensions (radius) that the orbits and gravitational layers must occupy.
(* All this to conserve the energy entropy of the cosmos "at so much occupied volume - so much energy contained")

Simplifying, we would say that atoms have two structural needs to satisfy:
1.- Complete the (positive) electromagnetic orbits with electrons, thus defining the atomic dimensions and energy density balance to which the cosmos as a whole forces them (cosmic entropy = so much volume occupied - so much energy contained)
2.- Complete its gravitational layers 2.(2N^2) = 2, 8,8,18,18,32,32 to get a complete gravitational balance.
And precisely this need to be complete and occupied the magnetic orbits and valence layers is what makes all atoms (except the noble gases that are already complete and saturated their orbits and layers) tend to form atomic and molecular bonds to complete their layers.
Well, in this cosmic and atomic model, the orbits consist of rotational or planetary movements on the central nucleus, and to achieve the atomic or molecular unions (it also occurs in stars) the atoms and stars have to be located keeping the magnetic polarity N_S and thus construct covalent orbits for two or more atoms, as seen in the drawing.
* In the following drawing, the rainbow table of the elements is exposed so that the different chemical elements, their orbits and their layers can be visually studied.
Besides, and to resemble the planetary theory, they are distributed in concentric gravitational semi-layers (with the orbits corresponding to each one of them ... 2,8,8,18,18,32 ..) on the atomic nucleus.

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As can be deduced from this table of the elements, all megnetic orbits are similar, but to achieve their total magnetic and gravitational balance at the same time, all atoms have the need to fill or saturate both their magnetic orbits and their gravitational or valence layers.
And for that reason they seek the construction of molecules and atomic bonds that satisfy both needs or imbalances.

Orbits and orbitals ones (electrons, planets, etc.)

This planetary model considers a single type of orbits (unlike quantum mechanics) that are rotational around the nucleus and stable in their concentric situation on each other, which are produced by the rotation of the magnetic fields created by the nucleus.
The rotating magnetic fields, according to their rotation speed and potential of these magnetic fields, create stationary orbits keeping a quasi-fixed radial distance between them and the nucleus (1/2.Pi^n).
In these orbits produced by magnetic fields and forces it is where the positive electromagnetic charges of the atoms are produced and executed, and therefore it is towards where the electrons or orbitals are attracted and held.
The mechanics of capturing orbitals (electrons, planets, etc.) is very simple:
Positive electromagnetic orbits attract orbitals (e.g. electrons) that are captured and held in those orbits.
Once in them, the electrons adapt their orbital translation speed to their mass to achieve the necessary inertial balance (centrifugal force = centripetal force, etc.), that is, first the electrons are captured and then they are slowed down and forced to take the speed, motion and balance of forces required.
As we can see, there is only one class of orbits here, which is enough to build all the atomic bonds as we will see in this study on spherical molecules, whether they are simple, double, triple or complementary.

Atomic bonds.

As we have said, it is the magnetic fields produced by the nuclei around them that create the magnetic orbits (electromagnetic because they are positively charged) to which the electrons are conducted and held.
Now, to build an atomic bond composed of two or more atoms, what they do is align themselves polarly N_S, attract each other and join their empty orbits to create new and common ones for all these atoms.
Logically these common or covalent orbits will be between the component atoms of the union, and they will also be positive electromagnetic orbits capable of capturing electrons.
Therefore, a covalent atomic bond consists of the structuring of common orbits, to which each atom gives the electrons that are in a position to give, and in some rare cases (ions), they can even accept electrons from other atoms not involved in the bond.

Small criticism of the QM.

And finally, forgive me for a personal criticism of QM (Quantum Mechanics).
I have a hard time accepting the strange and incomprehensible orbital distribution that QM proposes.
I understand that the cosmos is spherical, rotational, and does not use quadratures like our mind does when using Cartesian coordinates.
In the cosmos no elements are observed or distributed on the x, y, z axes.
How do we think that an atomic nucleus is going to distribute the electrons on the x, y, z axes, when these axes do not exist there!. *
It is the same as if we tried to distribute the planets of our solar system, or the stars of the galaxies in Cartesian coordinates around their nuclei or centers.
It lacks all sense and logic.
In the cosmos the basic movements of the elements are always rotational and orbital in order to compensate and balance the pair of antagonistic fields of forces such as gravity and the magnetic force that every material nucleus produces.
As we see in the cosmos, when a nuclear center is formed with a potential of energy and forces of any kind, this nucleus distributes the elements that it handles in orbits, some closer and others more distant, but in Cartesian coordinates, never.
And all these orbits in rotation around the nucleus to counteract (centrifugal and centripetal forces) the nuclear attraction on the orbital elements (electrons, planets; stars in galaxies, etc.)
Forgetting that there is a mutual attraction between nucleus and orbitals, and saying that there is a certain possibility of finding them in this or that place simply for our formulas to be correct (Schrodinger) is not scientifically serious, a circumstance that leads us to such a disaster as is the Orbital layout of the QM.
But also, the distribution that the QM gives to the orbitals is so crazy, strange and unfortunate, that I understand that for a critical mind it is almost impossible to assimilate it.
So when I look at a quantum orbital exposure table, I feel puzzled, confused, and even angry.
Sorry, but I don't agree with the QM.

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(*) The only real cosmic coordinate is the N-S polar in rotating nuclei.
In such a way that being located at a pole, if the earth (nucleus) turns to the left we will be at the north N pole, and if it turns to our right we will be at the south S pole.

Complementation of valence layers

As we saw before (gravitational or valence layers), the essence and guide for the structure of the molecules is in the saturation or filling of the last valence layer.
In this sense, almost all the atoms involved in the formation of molecules tend to complete their second (or third) valence shell, which has 8 electrons, with the exception of hydrogen, which tends to complete its first valence shell with 2 electrons.
However in hydrogen (and the other ones), this first useful valence layer has a magnitude or orbital radius similar to the others and therefore it is easy to make its orbital valence layers coincide with that of the other atoms.
So, and to structure spherical molecules, the main rule to follow is to adjust the electrons that each atom conserves and add the electrons that it acquires with the covalence bonds that it acquires from the whole molecule.
Therefore and in total, the set of electrons or orbitals occupied in that last layer will be 8, and in hydrogen it will be 2. Electron per layer (2,8,8,18,18,32,32. ).

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Estructural consideration :

If molecules could form rings, then there would be rings of any number of atoms, 6,7,8,9,10,11,12 .... etc. the more atoms the better.
However, being spheres, they can only be less than 6 (3 for each pole N_S ) if we want them to be kept very close to each other to make their valence layers coincide and form covalent bonds.
And also take compact and balanced shapes, such as the tetras shape (4) and the hexa shape (6) as we will see later.
Neither the rings (planes) would allow to build good three-dimensional structures as occurs with spherical molecules.
See the Benzene:

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The previous neutron-diffraction image could agree (for its author) with the spherical structure of benzene that seen polarly (previous drawing) could be observed in addition to the carbon atoms in hexagonal shape, the 6 bonding electrons: four interiors at the same distance from the center and two outside, all they as the theory places them.

* Remember that if benzene were spherical, almost all images (which are two-dimensional) would give us a hexagonal vision (see drawing of benzene), while if benzene were flat, only a completely polar image would give us the hexagonal shape, the other images would look flat or semi-flat .

Therefore, the percentage of hexagonal or flat images can give us an idea of the structure of benzene: The more hexagonal images, the more likely they are to be spherical. The more flat images, the more likely it is to be flat.

Covalent bonds

Atoms connections

Main types of bonds and crystal lattices.

Foundation:
The nuclei of the gravitational systems (atoms, stars) rotate on themselves (spin) and they make to rotate and to be deformed (in spiral) to the gravitational and magnetic fields that surround them.
This makes that to be able the approaching and union of two or more atoms and to create common orbits (covalent bonds) they have to join in the polar N-S direction, because otherwise their magnetic and gravitational fields would collide producing the rejection among them.
Therefore, to come closer some atoms to other and to create the atomic connections or to build crystals, atoms must approach in the polar direction N-S or S-N.

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In the following drawing we have the way of connecting atoms to obtain the different types of covalent bonds. In the same way and N-S orientation, the ionic molecules and crystals are built.

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In the drawing we show the magnetic lines and of polarity (north-south) by means of which atoms are attracted and aligned forming structures of lineal form and of spherical form, which we will see in this study of molecular structuring.
This same N-S alignment that molecules take is the one that produces their characteristic or directional property of joining Cis-Trans.

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Aromatic hydrocarbons

Following the scheme of the drawing above:
Aromatic hydrocarbons will be those formed by hexa-carbon groups (C6-H6) with benzene type bonds, that is, a particular bond for each N-S triad, and a common bond for the two triads.
Then aromatics will be based in hexa-carbon goups, already one group o more of them.
Therefore, the benzene type bond is the basis for the definition of aromatic hydrocarbon, essentially, benzene bonds built by carbon and hydrogen atoms.
The benzene bonds will therefore not be properly aromatic (if so stipulated) if other types of atoms embedded in the hexa form, such as nitrogen.

Benzene type bonds: Stability and strengths of its bonds

Benzene-type bonds are special in spherical construction since each bond is made for three or more atoms of the hexa group.
For this reason, if we want to break one of the three bonds, it not only affects the breaking atom but at least two others, with which for the break to be successful we also need to recompose the state of the other two atoms of the bond.
Something different and easier to achieve is the substitution of hydrogen for other elements, keeping the internal bond intact.
That is, the stability of the benzene bonds is a consequence of the difficulty of achieving the complete change of state for the three atoms that make up any of its bonds.

Main structures on spherical molecules

Two are the main spherical types of structures, as we see in the drawing: Hexa and tetra.
____Hexas are regular structures, which are formed by six atoms whose bonds are in the centre of the molecule.
Their bonds can be single, double, composed (or benzene type of) and triple.
--They are simple when a single bond (by mean of two electrons) is used for uniting two o more atoms.
--They are double when a double bond (with two pairs of electrons) is used for uniting atoms.
--They are composed (or benzene type) when a single bond is used for the whole molecule and another single connection for each one of the two triads of the molecule.

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____ Tetras are irregular molecules, which are formed by four atoms, one of which forms the vertex and taking the contrary position (cis or trans) to the other three atoms. Their bonds can be single, double or complementary.
--They are simple if the molecule is united by a single bond only.
--They are double if the molecule is united by a double bond.
--And they are complementary if the triad uses a double bond and the vertex atom is together to the molecule for a single bond.
The same as in the lineal molecules, the common bond for the hexa-molecules can also be used as covalent bond by other atoms or tetra-molecules that want to unite to this hexa-molecule. Examples of these are naphthalene and anthracene.
In the following drawings we will see example of union between hexas and tetras molecules and of hexa-molecules with triads.

General biological consideration:

Biological structures seem to be assembled by means of structural supports or bases of hexa-type molecules, to which tetra (or linear) arms or branches with multiple combinatorial capacity are added to form different types of molecules according to the terminal atoms with which they are attached to other ones.

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General molecular structure: Like a great biological meccano

In general, all molecular structures, mainly biological ones, are made up of chains of tetracarbon and hexacarbon units, successively linked to each other.
It seems that these types of molecules meet all the expectations and qualities to build the entire biological framework.

In a figurative sense, we could say that the tetras and hexas molecules are like the pieces of a great biological meccano, in which the planetary orbits would be the holes for the union screws, and these screws would be the electrons that each atom is in conditions of yield or receive.
The different possibilities of linking atoms and molecules through their orbits and electrons will give us different molecular constructions as well as their hybrids, isomers, etc.
This idea of building a meccano can be followed to build the molecules step by step by completing the orbits (holes) to be filled with the electrons (screws) provided by each of the intervening atoms.

Hybridization and isomerism.

This theory understands that isomerism and hybridization have similarity, understanding that hybridization would be a lesser degree than isomerism.
Both are structural and location variations of position of atoms in molecules built with the same atoms.
But while in hybridization it is usually carried out in simpler molecules that have the same chemical properties, in isomerism it commonly occurs in composite molecules and that can have different chemical properties between these isomers, and in some cases also different types of bonds.

Let us remember that the beginning of the construction of molecules is produced by alignment and attraction of the N-S polarity of the atoms and molecules.
Therefore a molecule can begin to be built by one of its two poles (N or S) and the resulting molecule being different in the strictest sense (magnetic geometry), although it could has the same properties.
For example, fluorhydric acid can be FH or HF which will be hybridized in the strict sense, although it has the same properties.

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Now, if a molecule built with different polarity also has different reactive and chemical properties, then it is already taking a higher category of isomer, and more so if it is structured with different bonds.

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Following it can see some other examples of molecular structuring as they can be the sugars, water, citric acid, etc., as for this structural theory.

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Each covalent bond is made of two orbits, however, and to facilitate its representation in drawings, we will always use each bond as the orbiting of two electrons.

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Benzene

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Benzene type bonds:

Benzene-type bonds are special in spherical construction since each bond is made for three or more atoms of the hexa group.
For this reason, if we want to break one of the three bonds, it not only affects the breaking atom but at least two others, with which for the break to be successful we also need to recompose the state of the other two atoms of the bond.
Different thing is the substitution of a hydrogen by other elements keeping the internal bond intact.

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Hydrocarbons' Birth

Genesis of Hydrocarbons
CHn - CHn

On the Earth (from 1997)

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Theory on the hydrocarbons formation and life's birth, which is exposed in my works Metaphysics treatises 1997, Covalent Composition 1998 and Asteron the fifth planet of 1998.

In this theory it aims the impossibility that hydrocarbons have been born of the transformation of dead animals and buried in archaic times because with this transformation there would not be enough elements for the production of hydrocarbons neither for a single year with the current consumption.
Different reasons can support this theory, as unusual existence of big quantities of single nitrogen in the atmosphere or the great quantity of water existent in our planet.
In both cases these elements (also oxygen) are residual elements from atmospheric transformations carried out during millions of years.
The development of hydrocarbons it aimed, as we can observe in the beginning square, as result of the chemical transformation of the very abundant products in the cosmic nature as they are ammonia NH3, carbonic anhydride CO2, and water OH2, ("broth of the life") everything carried out by the natural solar heat on our planet, with arrangement to the following chemical transformation:

As we see, this theory bet for an ideal bar of temperature for the birth of life. If temperature were lower or higher than in this bar, very not favourable atmospheric gases for the proliferation of life could exist. With little temperature there would be too much ammonia NH3, which could not be destroyed easily and with a lot of temperature there would be too much CO2 and sulphurous and nitrous acids as well as a destruction of the possible vital chains.

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"Another subsequent way of transformation of NH3 with the obtaining of large amounts of water and free nitrogen, is the reaction of ammonia with the free oxygen left from photosynthesis in plants"

4 NH3 + 3 O2 = 2 N2 + 6 H2O

Poly-benzenes

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In the previous drawings Benzene is shown firstly, which we can see it developed in its specific page.
We also see the main spherical molecules that can be built with benzene structures, also with contributions of tetrahedron structures.
It is shown:
-- Caroten (C24) is a simple molecule that is formed by a benzene molecule and six triads of carbon.
--Full-naphthalene (C30) which is composed by a benzene group and six tetras.
--Hexa-benzene (C42) composed by seven benzenes, one of those is central.
--Hexa-carotene (C60) that is composed by a central benzene and six carotenes (benzene with a triad in any atom)
--Hexa-naphthalene (C66) composed by a benzene and six naphthalene.
--And for finish, Diamond (Cn).
As we see these are quasi-spherical molecules. Nevertheless by means of multiples benzenes a lot of molecules can be built, which don't keep sphere appearance.

Diamond (Cn).

Diamond is a special case of molecular carbonic net in which all atoms are connected by both sides (except those of the gem surface).
As you see in the drawings, in all molecules that are exposed (except diamond) alone those of the benzene nucleus and the radial branches have bilateral bond; the other ones have a lateral connection only.
Therefore all they are less dense, less compact and mainly less hard than diamond, because any diamond forms a single molecule while the other compounds of many united molecules consist.
In diamond the interior bond are of benzene type (double connection for each atom) while the unions among benzenes are carried out by means of single bond.

Diamond bonds

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The first question to consider in diamond is its hardness and crystalline structure are due to each diamond forms a single molecule of carbon.
When staying united all their atoms for covalent bonds in their two directions (Cis-Trans) they are constituted in a single three-dimensional molecule that gives diamond its hardness and its crystalline state.
Diamond consists of hexa groups, which are constituted by a double covalent bond (benzene type): A common bond for all the atoms and a particular bond for each triad.
Apart from this, the hexa group are united among them in the following way: Each atom of the hexa groups is united by its external side with a simple connection to another hexa group forming a carbonic net in which all its connection positions are occupied.
Summarizing, each atom of carbon give two electrons for covalent bonds: one for the benzene nucleus and another for the union with another different group. In the change, this atom receives six covalent orbits for its three bonds (each covalent bonds uses two common orbits).

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Fullerene

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Theoretically, a candidate molecule to be Fullerene c-60 would be the one represented in the previous drawing.
I understand that the current proposed structure for fullerene does not stand much of a chance of being correct, for two main reasons:
1.- It would be almost impossible for nature to build a spherical surface with rings similar to benzene, since it would be necessary, in addition to cutting and pasting, a "machine" capable of bending a large surface of rings, to build a spherical surface .
2.- Neither does the density of fullerene seem to coincide with a hollow sphere made of carbons.
If this hollow sphere were to be achieved, then its density would have to be between 1 and 5 times less than graphite and between 5 and 10 less than diamond.
However, if the fullerene keeps a compact spherical structure, it would fall within those density margins that it has.

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Many are the possibilities of building structures with carbon due to the different types of covalent bonds that they allow.
But some have their own peculiarities since their structures form unique molecules such as diamond and carbon threads that give them great hardness and resistance.

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Spherical benzene, when being three-dimensional and polar N-S, if aligned with a magnetic field, it can follow the oscillations in this field and behave like a oscillating coil, and therefore, its atoms and bonds can oscillate and vibrate easily, at the same time it must as have specific and clear frequencies of resonances.
In addition, each atoms and bond according to its dimension and orientation will be able to vibrate with different frequencies and field potentials.

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Orbital resistance (ionization).

As we can deduce, every atom in a state of structural equilibrium has a certain resistance to emit its last electrons, or if we want, to be ionized.
Now, taking into account the positive electromagnetic attraction of the orbits and the singularity of complementation of gravitational layers or valence, the final resistance (Rt) to be deprived of the last of its electrons would be given by the potential or positive charge of the orbit (Re), plus the electronegative valence potential of the atom (Rv)
Rt = Re + Rv
Rt.- Total ionization resistance
Re.- Resistance due to the electromagnetic positve attraction of the orbit on the electron. (positive charge)
Rv.- Resistance due to the eletronegative potential of valence for fill gravity layers. (where the noble gases are applied the maximum electronegativity due to their resistance to the ionization)

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Thanks friends