Atomic Particles.
Of ferman: Fernando Mancebo Rodriguez--- Personal page. ----Spanish pages

You can see many of my works, in the following pages:

Email: ferman25@hotmail.com
Email: ferman30@yahoo.es

Atomic Particles
Photons, heating particles, neutrinos, leptons, atomic nuclei.
Law of Universal Balance

Fourth dimension

To understand better on what particles consist, we should to know firstly the consideration of the fourth dimension of space and time, which in turn, is a mathematical property that also composes and structures to space and time .
For this, we go see firstly the tetracoor drawing (tetra-coordinate, 4)

--- 1975

Either in space and time we can consider two dimensions coming from the mathematical characteristics of the same ones, and that would be:

-- The plane dimension, and
-- The exponential dimension

Say, a plane level exists that is represented by the natural number, 1, 2, 3, 4 ... etc.
And also exist successive exponential levels that will be represented by superior units, multiples ones on the others ones, as for example: 1, 10, 100, 1000, 10000, .... etc.
Let's put an example to understand it better.
We use as longitude unit to the meter because it measures the same than us approximately, say, it similar to our tall, and so, good for our mathematic measurements.
But suppose we can eliminate the dependency that our conscience has of our body, extracting our mind from the body and take it to any level and dimension.
In this case, if we put our conscience and mind in an ant, then and for a good adaptation we should use as unit the millimetre.
But if we put our mind at the galaxies level, then we should use as unit to the light-year.
Naturally, space and time aren't limited by our dimensional mind, and so they can take all the dimensional levels that they "want".
Say, for space 1 meter could be an adequate unit; but also could be good the light-year; the angstrom, the nanometre, the femtometre, yottameter, etc.
Good, this capacity of space and time of considering different dimensional levels should be also applicable to their compounds energy and matter.
This means that as well space, time, energy as matter aren't subjected to our dimensional limitations, but they can take (and this way they do) all the cosmic levels possible.
This way, and taking exponential character, space, time and cosmic energy can take different metric units equivalent to values:
1, 10, 100, 1000, 10000...etc of ours, in ascendant values, y
1, 1/10, 1/100, 1/1000 .... etc of ours, in descendent values
And situating the unit (1) in any level of these

Peculiarities of particles: All particles are different

Matter

Now well, matter for its formation needs of more complexity that energy.
For the construction, stability and structuring of matter into units, beside of the energy that composes it, matter needs of the magnetic force to be structured and balanced into these matter units.
This is due to matter is get it by mean of the aggregation, sum and condensation of points of energy in gravitation form, and when these accumulations of energy are produced in any place of the space, this consequence produces a great pressure and imbalance of energy in that place, producing immediately a reaction force of rebalance of energy through space that we call magnetic force.
Logically, when being energy the union of space and time (universal motion), that energy should be distributed in the same proportion and density through the total space.
But not: The characteristics of the gravitation (primary way of actuation of the cosmic energy) make that the accumulations of energy forming matter produce imbalances in the distribution of energy through space, and as consequence of this, the magnetic force (*) is born to try of rebalancing again the energy through space.

(*) Expansion and redistribution force born from the excessive accumulation and pressure of energy in any place of space (on what the matter consists).

For this cause and in this manner, the gravitation that accumulates energy in material nuclei and the magnetic force that create orbits around these nuclei for being occupied by minor particles, working jointly, get mount gravitational systems (nuclei with surrounding orbital ones) getting this way the balance and density of energy that the Cosmos required, to know:
Total energy of the system / volume (nuclei with its orbital ones) = mid density of the energy that the Cosmos has.
And the system gets the balance.

Well, to these gravitational system are the ones that we establish as matter units, and level units.

Exponentiation of matter

Now this would be de question: How the exponentiation of matter is produced?
Because the same that in mathematics, the addition of many units of any level, (e.g. atoms) gives us a unit of the superior level, as in these cases are stars.
In turn, the addition of many stars produces a unit of the superior level, the super-stars.
In inverse way, any atom is formed for the addition of many sub-atoms.

But in all cases, sub-atoms, atoms, stars, supra-stars, etc., all they are formed by the same elements: Nucleus, orbits and magnetic forces that build these orbits, attracting and fixing the orbital ones and determining the volume of the system or unit with relation to the contained energy or matter.

So, the units of any level can unite, to be summed and form other units of superior level; being atoms the addition of many sub-atoms; stars the addition of many atoms, and so forth.
In inverse sense, atoms are composed in turn by sub-atoms and so forth.

We have said the addition and accumulation of units of a determined level, for example, atoms, end up to build another unit of the superior level, as stars.
Although, between an inferior unit (atom) and a superior one (star) it can have near infinite types of accumulation of atoms, those ones don't have already the sufficient entity and quantity to be converted into a star.
Right, to all these intermediate accumulations of matter between two levels, is to what we call particles.
This way, if for the construction of a star are necessary approximately 10^57 atoms, all the minor aggregations of atoms to this number can compose minor particles or bodies than a star, and then we call them stellar particles, as for example, the rocks, meteorites, moons, planets, etc.
And a sub-atomic level, the particles would be light, heating particles, neutrinos, leptons, etc.

We have said the accumulation and sum of many units of any cosmic level end up producing another unit of a superior level.
Let's remember that this is due to in the cosmic space must to exists a balance between the matter of a system and its volume, to get the required middle density existent in the Cosmos.
If we unite for example many atoms to form a star, once that the quantity of matter is great, and so its density is excessive, from this accumulation of matter is born the magnetic force to construct a new system with orbital ones, those ones increment the volume of the system, and this way, the natural fall of the density of energy in the same one.
Say the new star is formed with orbits and orbital ones, getting this way its magnetic balance of matter/volume, and getting also the required mid density that the Cosmos has.

Atomic and sub-atomic particles.

So, between two consecutive levels almost infinite size of particles exist, that go from the union of two inferior units (for example, bi-atomic molecule or binary star) to the great accumulations as can be neutrinos, leptons, atomic nuclei, etc., at atomic level.
And as meteorites, moons, planets, suns, etc., at star level.
In both cases they are particles; already they are atomic particles or stellar particles.

Let's see the atomic particles

The least portion of sub-atomic particle is the sub-atom, say, an unit of the inferior cosmic level.
My calculation about the dimension of sub-atoms is approximately of 10^-80 grams.

Sub-atoms should be imperceptibles in stop, but can be contemplated when, joined in important accumulations, they acquire great speed when being accelerated for atomic phenomena and can be observed like electromagnetic energy, as can be light.

When for example, it is produced an atomic explosion or chemical reaction, the magnetic force good to balance systems impels violently to any particle not necessary for the new state of the atoms, including minor particles as sub-atoms.

Good, being sub-atoms extremely small relative to the magnetic fields that expel them, then these sub-atoms have enough time to be accelerated till great speed (like the light speed) before they come out from the magnetic field of the atom.
For this reason the light speed alone can be acquired by the very small particles with relation to the magnetic fields of expulsion.

Accumulations of sub-atoms

Luminous particles Lp 10^-80/10^-60 grams

Sub-atoms when are emitted by atoms, they can join forming groups of mid dimensions, to which we know as photons.
Say, photons are simply accumulations of sub-atoms (about 10^6 to 10^12) that when being forming joints they act as autonomous particles, many time in form of galactic disc.
Photons, due to its scarce dimension relative to atoms, they can be accelerated to the light speed.

Well, to all these particles that can acquire high speed when they are emitted by atoms, is to that we call luminous particles.

To star level, the equivalent to luminous particles are the cosmic rays of high energy, consistent in thousands or millions of atoms to high speed.
The cosmic rays of high energy can be produced by the explosion of supernovas.

To super-stars level, the equivalent to the luminous particles and cosmic rays particles are galaxies. So, probably our galaxy proceeds from the explosion of a super-star.

Heating particles Hp10^-60/10^-40 gramos

The heating particles follow in dimension to the luminous particles, and whose acceleration and emission speed should be very slowly regarding to the speed of light.
These particles generally are the ones that atoms use to end up the total magnetic balance; this way in chemical reactions these particles are captured or emitted by atoms for getting the total balance of matter inside it: Getting the parity volume/required matter inside the atom, or what is the same, get the mid cosmic density of energy in atoms.

The same like to atomic level, at stellar level the heating particles are represented by the meteorite particles that are absorbed by stars to get their necessary balance of matter/star volume.

Neutrinos N 10^-40/10^-30 gramos

Neutrinos are already bigger particles, with a magnetic potential well-defined that would serve as magnetic balance for the leptons orbits.
As we see next, leptons have important orbital power that allows them to attract, fix, and conserve minor orbital particles, as they are these neutrinos.

(O) As principle, any type of neutrino is magnetically adequate to be captured by any type of leptons, already they are electrons, muons or taus.

On the other hand, neutrinos seem to have yet minor magnetic fields, without orbital ones, circumstances that makes them to have enough mobility inside and outside of atoms; beside to be guest of leptons.

Leptons E 10^-30/10^-24 grams

Leptons, the following bigger particles to neutrinos, due to their size and magnetic power are the adequate particles for stuffing and occupying the orbits of atoms.
They are bigger particles that development already important magnetic fields with their corresponding well-defined orbit, which can attract, fix and maintain minor particles as neutrinos.
Leptons haven't yet a strict necessity of total magnetic balance (matter/volume = mid density of energy) like atoms already have.
Then, with minor exactitude and demand of balance but with many orbits, they can capture a lot of orbital ones or neutrinos, getting usually more than enough and taking this way negative potential (*).
Leptons can be of different size among them, being able to capture less or more quantity of neutrinos as for their particular size.
This case we can have small leptons of alone one neutrino (as electrons) or with many neutrinos as muons and taus.
Inclusive leptons that don't have captured any neutrinos, as positrons, in this case with positive character due to they have little volume and much matter.

At star level, the same thing occurs, where planets can be smaller or bigger and with the possession of not one, one, few or several moons.

(O) As principle, any type of leptons (inclusive positron) is magnetically adequate to be captured as orbital one by any type of atom.

(*) Any particle is positive (+) if it has high density of energy, say, more matter than the corresponding to its volume (including to its occupied orbits)
And it will be negative (- ) if it have not enough densityof energy; minor matter than the required by its total volume.

Atomic nuclei. 10^-24/4x10^-22 gramos

And finally, and as atomic particles we have the atomic nuclei.

Here the dimensions are great and their peculiarity of magnetic balance also.

Say, atoms have an enormous magnetic potential that watch over the strict performance of the system balance (contained energy/volume), haven this way high capacity and magnetic force to attract and capture orbital ones (leptons) and once they are captured, to acquire small particles till complete the total balance of energy inside the atom.
In this sense any atomic change, as can be the cession of a lepton in any chemical reaction, produces immediately the emission the surplus energy in particles form, to get newly the necessary balance of energy.

The same occurs in stars, where not alone they tend to stuff all their orbits with planets, but also to emit or acquire mass of meteorites if its magnetic balance of matter/volume needs to make it.

(*) Electric potential: It is understand as electric potential when the magnetic fields of particles is enough to create potential orbits, able to attract and fixe orbital ones on them.
In this case each orbit represents an electric charge.
These potentials alone can get them the big particles as the atomic nuclei in strict meaning, but also we can consider it in leptons due to they also can fix orbital ones, although with minor exactitude and requirement that the atomic nuclei.

Stable and unstable particles.

Accelerator of particles.

To begin, we can say that stable particles are the ones that have long life in the Cosmos due to their structure is not attacked nor destroyed by other cosmic elements or forces.
Say, they are inside the rules of "coexistence" according to all the balance of forces that the Cosmos imposes.

Contrarily, will be unstable particles those ones that can't maintain their structure long time due to their dimensions and constitutive forces surpass the balances impose by the Cosmos rules.
But this, will analyzed later.

Necessary balances

My cosmic theory proposes that any matter accumulation produces magnetic fields in direct proportion to the contained matter.
This magnetic force is antagonist to gravity and treats of redistributing the energy and matter for de surrounding space with object of getting the same density of energy in all places of space.
Say, when a great accumulation of matter is produced, from this, a force of redistribution of energy is born trying of casting the energy newly through space.
And this force of redistribution is the magnetic force.

Now well, the actuation of this magnetic force could be considered in three sub-levels, as for the potential of the same ones:

1.- The first sub-level is when the accumulations of matter it the minimum inside this, and so this sub-level produce small magnetic fields.
This circumstance makes that these small magnetic fields don't attack the consistence of these minimum accumulation of matter, allowing their existence as solitary particles without necessity of forming complex system nor duality of particles (accompanying particles).

Referring to the atomic level, this first group of particles (sub-level 1) would be the compositions of matter with values between 10^-80 and 10^-30 grams.
As we have said, these particles can last long time in their same state and dimensions, without provoking enough magnetic imbalances.

2.- The second sub-level could embrace the particles situated approximately between 10^-30 and 4x10^-22 grams.
In this particles, the developed magnetic potential (due to their great mass) begins to be very powerful producing a very important magnetic imbalance, and to be able survive, these great particles must to create orbits, attract and fix orbital ones, and this way to produce a system of great volume with the corresponding fall of density of energy, getting this way the mid density of energy that the Cosmos has and allows. (mass/volume = density of energy)
If no were this way, the high magnetic potential would destroy the particle by explosion.

This is the sub-level where is produced the construction of the medium and great systems, as they are leptons and atoms:

A.- Leptons are minor of these systems and embrace approximately masses between 10^-28 and 10^-24 grams.
These leptons have certain magnetic flexibility as for their strict measurement of the total energy contained inside their system, in spite of creating orbits around them.
Although they have certain freedom of capturing more or less orbital ones (neutrinos) and generally neutrinos encounter in the orbits of leptons as very good places to be situated.

B.- Atom have very much mass than leptons, and so, more important magnetic fields.
The masses of atomic nuclei from 10^-24 to 4x10^-22 grams.
These atoms have already maximum magnetic potential, as well to create magnetic orbits as to have a strict measurement of the mass contained inside them.
This way its magnetic potential orders strictly how much stuffed orbits must to have (volume), and also how much mass must to contain.
For this reason, their magnetic fields measure the contained mass, and if it is not enough, these magnetic fields absorb the necessary minor matter particles till getting in complete balance of mass/volume.

3.- And finally we get the third sub-level, where the anterior balances are already impossible.
Here the magnetic potential is so strong and surpass so clearly to the gravity force that the particles or system is destroyed in explosion by the magnetic force, creating from them new minor particles already inside the allowed magnetic potentials.

Particles accelerators

We already know the current use of the accelerators of particles for analyzing the structure of atoms.
Although, the idea accepted nowadays I think is wrong because I believe atomic nuclei don't have well-differentiated particles but only accumulated amorphous matter, like stars.
So we have trying to find something that doesn't exist, and the results are infinite portion of matter of all type and size.
When we destroy an atomic nucleus, we obtain millions of particles of any dimension, as for the type and potential used in the destruction.
This way, we can observe that the resultant particles will be of long life (stable) if they are of minor dimensions; and of short life (unstable) if they are bigger and with more magnetic potential.
If they are big and unstable, these particles will find quickly their magnetic balance acquiring orbital ones or acquiring accompanying particles.
Say, when destroying an atomic nucleus we don't find component particles, but alone we have dividing a unique particle into infinite portions that we call particles.
And it seems to be the circumstance that occurs with many of the big unstable particles, as they can be the bosons of Higgs, W, Z, etc., which are simply great particles, unstable due to huge dimensions, those which are transformed quickly into any other with the acquisition of orbital ones, or auto-destroying by impulse of its magnetic potential.
This way, and summarizing, in the accelerators of particles we don't discover component particles, but alone we part a unique particles into infinite pieces.

Law of Universal Balance

When being energy the union of space and time (or Universal Motion), in all places of space should be the same quantity of energy.
Nevertheless, due to the gravity characteristics, when the cosmic energy is accumulated and condensed into matter, this produces an excessive accumulation of energy in that point of space, which means in other hand the lack of this energy in other places of space.
To solve these deficiencies (and as pressure force of energy in space) from these accumulations is born the Magnetic Force that will take in charge a new redistribution of the energy in the most adequate way; already forming system of forces (gravitational systems) with the necessary volume to get the mid density of the required energy; or already destroying the great matter accumulations that surplus the maximum required limits of density of energy.
Good, this way of actuation of energy in space is expressed by a rule or law of distribution of energy that I exposed as Law of Universal Balance, which would be expressed as:

"In all places of space must to be the same density of energy, which is the mid density of energy that the Cosmos has in whole."