Atoms and stars models of ferman ---- 1975-1992----
Everything Theory ----> Through the Fourth Dimension.
Of ferman: Fernando Mancebo Rodriguez--- Personal page.
( I ) Abstract : SummaryBoth particles and Astros interact with each other by means of magnetic orbital couplings and all they work in the same way.
(?) Gravity is cosmic energy when it acts in concentric direction on any point of space. So gravity is a way of manifestation of the cosmic energy.
(Mechanics of Systems' Formation): Then, big matter accumulations create magnetic fields around; and the rotation of these magnetic fields create positive stationary orbits.
In atoms and stars the magnetic fields around their nuclei create stationary orbits and make rotate electrons and planets on them.
In similar action, the magnetic fields of electrons make rotate neutrinos around them; the magnetic fields of planets make rotate moons around them; the magnetic fields of galaxies make rotate stars among them.
In groupings of particles (as in the formation of proto-stars, etc.) the concentric gravity force attracts and bring material particles closer together, and the antagonist magnetic forces force these groupings to de rotation and maintenance of their own space of balance of energy (Da); space of balance that later on is conserved (with nucleus and planets) when the solar system is finally built.
This way in the Cosmos, solitary particles are always charged (+) due to they have great density of energy, and so, they tend to form systems of particles (nucleus with orbital ones) or grouping of particles to reach the required and needed energy balance, due to these formations get much volume and the adequate density of energy (Da).
"Atoms and stars are two consecutive matter units inside the Fourth dimension".
2.- The Magnetic fields of force: Later on, and as consequence of the high pressure of energy that each time bigger accumulations of matter produce, a necessary rebalance force (antagonist to gravity) must to be born with object of building great rotation systems that maintain the density of energy (d=m/v) inside the required limits that the Cosmos allows.
This manner, the magnetic force has the purpose of distributing and balancing energy along the cosmos space, in two main ways:
(1) Interior Structural magnetic force (due to the great energy density in the nuclei), which creates gravitational systems (mainly nuclei with orbitals; or balanced groupings of particles) with much volume and with the appropriate average density of energy, for which the structural magnetic force creates the orbits, where it attracts, places and maintains the orbital particles (satellites); and
(2) Exterior Magnetic force (due to the needed of having the same density of energy in all the cosmic systems and places) for the complete and fine energy balance among systems, which absorbs or emits the necessary energetic particles (thermic) to get the final adjustment of the average of contained energy in the systems (atoms, stars, grouping of particles, etc.).
So, the magnetics forces structure systems and distribute energy inside them to get the correct average and balance of energy.
The imbalance due to surplus or lack of energy in systems and particles is manifested at different levels and intensity by mean of charges (+/-) as can be electromagnetic, electric, weak forces, thermic, etc., inclusive the high magnetic force that destroys systems (uranium; supernovas, etc.)
Any imbalance of contained energy, (average density of energy that the cosmos has and allows) makes unstable to the systems and particles that suffer of it.
This manner, the different types of charges treat of getting the final rebalance of energy in systems and particles.
An indicative and theoretical way of measuring the positive (+) charges in solitary particles could be: +c = pm/Pm that is, positive charge = particle mass / Proton mass.
Nevertheless as we know, it is very difficult to obtain solitary big particles, because of their lack of stability when reacting quickly to form composed systems of particles, or auto-destruction into minor particles.
Recall that through the fourth dimension, matter and energy tend to be balanced becoming stable gravitational systems, such as the sub-atoms that conform the second level below ours; Atoms that form the level below ours, and the stars the first level above us.
The sum and the union of many systems of any level can form another unit of the superior system (if its volume is enough).
As example we have that the sum of many atoms can contain as much matter and energy that to get the enough cosmic balance of energy, it need to form another gravitational superior system, or stars. That is, a central nucleus with enough orbital ones around it.
As well, the intermediate particles or particles between systems are those that do not contain enough mass to create a stable gravitational system.
In our case, between atoms and stars there are infinite particles and intermediary bodies such as the simple molecules, tiny particles, larger particles, and bodies such as rocks, lakes, trees, mountains, asteroids, etc.
Bigger than the anterior ones, it will be the planets satellites, planets, etc., to finally and jointly form a star that would be the superior system to the atomic systems.
This way, we the human would belong to those bodies or particles intermediate between our star system and the atomic systems.
Off course, the same happens at the sub-atomic level.
Between sub-atoms and atoms exist infinite particles or intermediate bodies, each of which with its particular capacity of gravitational and magnetic potential according to their mass.
But each of these particles is different in dimensions and shapes, and where only its dimension gives the gravitational and magnetic ability to act with others.
In minor intermediate particles the gravitational and magnetic power is not import, but in big particles their gravitational and magnetic power is essential for its interrelation among them.
And it is here where the Standard theory fails when distributing particles into groups of equal and undifferentiated particles among them. For instance, an electron is equal to other one in the Standard theory, when this is incorrect and two electrons are totally different between them, although inside the same range or magnitude of contained energy (from 10^-28 g. to 10^-31 g, about).
Warning about QM: The cosmos doesn't work like us.
You can see many of my works, in the following pages:
Double slit and camera obscura experiments: ferman experiment ||| Type of Waves: Questions of Quantum Mechanics
The socurces of gravity. ||| In favour of the cosmos theory of ferman FCM ||| Theory of Everything: summary
Model of Cosmos. ||| Atomic model ||| Development speed of forces.||| Magnets: N-S magnetic polarity.
Stellar molecules ||| Static and Dynamic chaos||| Inversion or Left-right proof
Chart of atomic measures||| The main foundations of the Cosmos' Structure
Positive electric charges reside in orbits.||| Mathematical cosmic model based on Pi.
Inexactness principle in observations ||| Einstein and the gravity ||| The Universal Motion ||| Atomic particles
Cosmic Geometry ||| Bipolar electronic: semiconductors ||| Multiverse or multi-worlds||| Light and photons
Quantum explanation of Gravity ||| Real physics versus virtual physics
Radial coordinates.||| Physical and mathematical sets theory. | Algebraic product of sets.
Planar angles: Trimetry.||| Fractions: natural portions.||| Cosmic spiral ||| Inverse values of parameters and operation
Equivalence and commutive property of division. ||| Concepts and Numbers. ||| Bend coefficient of curves ||| Mathematical dimensions
Transposition property ||| Accumulated product: Powers ||| Dimensional Geometry: Reversibility
Priority Rule in powers and roots ||| The decimal counter ||| The floating point index ||| Paradoxes in mathematics
Direct formula for Pi: The Squaring Pi. ||| The pyramids of Squaring Pi. ||| Functions of Pi ||| Integration formulas Pi.
Squaring the Circle ||| Cocktail formula for Squaring Pi.
Spherical molecules. ||| Genetic Heredity. ||| Metaphysics: Spanish only. ||| Brain and Consciousness. ||| Type of Genes T and D
Certainty Principle ||| From the Schrodinger cat to the Ferman's birds ||| The meaning of Dreams
Freely economy ||| Theoricles of Alexandria ||| Rainbow table of elements.||| Satire on the Quantum Mechanics
Cancer and precocious aging ||| Hardware and software of Genetics ||| The farmer and the quantum physicist|||
Andalusian Roof Tile. ||| Rotary Engine. ||| Water motors: Vaporization engines.
Triangular ferman's Houses .||| Pan for frying and poaching eggs ||| The fringed forest
Garbage Triangle: Quantum mechanics, Relativity, Standard theory
Fables and tales of the relativists clocks.||| Nuclei of galaxies.||| Particles accelerators.
Hydrocarbons, water and vital principles on the Earth. ||| Cosmos formula : Metaphysics
Ubiquity Principle of set.||| Positive electric charges reside in orbits.
Chaos Fecundity. Symbiosis: from the Chaos to the Evolution.||| Speed-Chords in galaxies.
The man and the testosterone.||| Toros say
Who is God
( II ) General Cosmic and Atomic Theory since 1975
Let me begin by exposing some of my personal postulates.
The intelligence and logic, as the First basic Principle on the Cosmos structuring:
""The physical universe is based on the principle of intelligent and logic creativity.""
Accept as principles and postulates to the uncertainty, human inability for understanding phenomena previously accepted, illogical physical foundations, etc., are positions of believers but not of real scientists.
The true scientist will always say:
"If that postulate or principle is incomprehensible or illogical, then it is false or incorret."
Drawings and summary of the atom model of ferman -- also stellar model
In this page you can see drawings and summary of my model of atom that is widely explained in my model of Cosmos. (up)
Characteristic of classic atomic models (Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr) and of mine.
The current quantum pattern is not exposed here because I understand that it lacks the logical and scientific quality as atomic model and it could be necessary to spend most of this article in the critic to its postulates. For instance
This way, the physical principles and rules of inertia, conservation of energy, etc., make impossible that particles could be waves.
Then particles of light (photons), particles of radio, x-rays, any type of radiation, neutrinos, electrons, etc., aren't waves, but alone we can modulate their density of emission (in each instant) using variable or alternative power of impulse.
For example, a radio-frequency of one cycle per second means that just each second we emit a high peak of great density of radio-particles and between seconds the power and emission, and so the density of particles, is minimum. ..... . . . ..... . . . ....
* When not keeping in mind for the quantum mechanics the total coincidence of elements and parameters in atoms and stars, as well as its negation of the actuation of the physical laws, energy and forces in atoms, and the pretension that our invented quantum and uncertainty formulas are those that move and direct the atomic world, for this author it means a complete manipulation and scientific fallacy.
The mathematical formulas don't move particles, but the physical forces in their performance and search of their corresponding balances.
The mathematical formulas (when they are correctly applied) alone can measure the performance of forces.
And making us echo of our friend Einstein, we can say: "Atoms don't play to dice; they play to the spinning top."
Dalton.- 1808 -------------
For Dalton, matter is constituted by tiny particles, the atoms.
Each element type is constituted by its own class of atoms, being these of equal mass and properties.
The atoms of different elements have properties and characteristic also different.
Therefore Dalton, although he doesn't expose the structure and outline of atoms, he begins to define us the properties and characteristic of the same ones.
Thomson.- 1897 ---------
Thomson already introduced us in the electric properties of atoms, considering that these were constituted by a positive charge that took incrusted to several negative charges, the electrons.
Rutherford already began to define a space structuring of atoms, linking it a little to our solar model.
He checked, by means of the emission of particles, that atoms were not compact and their electrons (charged negatively) would possibly rotate around an atomic nucleus (charged positively).
Atom would have this way a positive nucleus and a negative bark made up of electrons.
Bohr proposed that electrons would rotate around the nucleus in well defined levels, and basing on the studies of Planck, he proposed different energy levels for electrons according to the orbit where they were located.
Nevertheless, the same as Einstein was not able to finish his unification theory, Bohr didn't achieve a structural theory that explained these energy levels in all atoms, and alone it was good for the hydrogen atom.
Because well, until here the previous classic theories.
Now I will expose my atomic model a little more widely due to it has many concepts that give validity to the classic theories in opposition to the quantum mechanics model.
The Standard Theory flaws:
On the other hand, the Standard Theory of particles and sub-atomic forces seems to be inadmissible at first, because it would have some requirements, impossible to be completed in cosmological physics.
Till now we have proposed more than 50 particles and forces, but to this rhythm of discoveries soon we will have 100, 200 or more.
And on this, the requirement impossible to complete consists:
"To build all these particles and forces, when being each type equal among them, very complex and with many data and properties each one of them, because at the beginning of the Big-bang it would be necessary no alone the existence of the energy, but any type of "chromosomes", patterns, moulds, methods and construction systems to get particles with same properties, mass, charges, etc."
And much more: "A preliminary study to be able the total connection and interrelation among them"
And that is unthinkable.
From the pure energy at the beginning of the Cosmos it cannot be taken out hundreds of same particles without methods and specific "machinery" of construction and totally prepared to be connected and to work together.
In such a way that we could say that:
"When more sub-atomic particles are discovered, less sense the Standard Theory has.
The characteristics of my atomic model are supplemented with those of my model of Cosmos that studies fundamental principle of the same one, as they are space and time, energy, gravity, magnetic force, matter, and of course, the formation of atoms, stars, etc.
But as preamble and fundamental physical-cosmic principle we can establish that in any cosmic level (micro or macrocosms) any matter accumulation (condensed energy) creates to its surrounding two types of fields of antagonist forces, which are:
First): The surrounding fields of gravity force, with concentric direction that attracts other masses among them to form great matter accumulations, each time bigger.
Second): The surrounding fields of magnetic force (pressure and expansive force due to the energy accumulation) that treats of redistributing newly the matter or energy in orderly orbits around the central nuclei of the great matter accumulations.
As we can see in this theory, the orbits built by these magnetic forces acts as positive electromagnetic charges, which attract, capture and maintain on them to the orbital ones (electrons, neutrinos; planets, moons, etc. ) etc.
But bounding us to the pattern of atoms, the bases and characteristics are the following ones:
1.- Atoms non alone are similar to the solar systems, but rather they have the same principles, elements, structural rules, etc.
In fact, they represent different (and consecutive) levels of the Cosmos structure through the fourth dimension, but with the same properties, elements, forces; following, observing and completing the same physical laws, etc.
Therefore any mass, material or celestial body, life, etc. that we see at stars' level has its equal or equivalent at atomic level, and vice versa.
All the previous data belong to coincident (and observed) parameters among atoms and stars, which forces us to think that so much coincidence could not be given unless as much atoms as stars follow the same structural laws, say the classic mechanics, (Or a new and restructured quantum mechanic, coincident with the classic one.)
2.- Atoms are built and maintained by two types of forces: Gravity and the Magnetic force.
Gravity : Cohesion force
Foundation: Gravity is the cosmic energy (The union of space and time or Universal Motion) that alone can act as fields of force with concentric direction (points of energy or gravitation --See cosmic model)
Then the cosmic energy (the space-time union) in its first stage alone can act as gravitation points, those which later on unite to form the matter.
We can say in rough way that the cosmic energy or gravitation occupies the whole universe in similar proportion and density, and matter is those points where the cosmic energy or gravitation is accumulated and condensed, breaking scarce and partially the proportion and half density of energy that the cosmos has.
And to compensate and rebalance appropriately the imbalances of energy allotment that taken place with the accumulation of gravitation points into matter, it is for what the magnetic force or forces of allotment and rebalance of energy into the space is born.
Magnetic force : Expansion force as reaction force to gravity
Foundation: Magnetic force is the energy distribution force in the Cosmos to get the same density of energy in all places of space.
The magnetic force creates, organizes and watches over the periphery of all the big matter accumulations, (atomic nuclei, leptons, big particles; stars, planets, etc.) creating the necessary magnetic fields and magnetic orbits to get the required volume to obtain the same density of energy that the Cosmos has.
--As any matter, the great accumulation of mass of the atomic nucleus produces its corresponding Magnetic field,
Which builds, designs, watches over and organizes the atom periphery by means of the creation of magnetic fields and magnetic orbits, which attract, locate and maintain to electrons.
In anterior drawing: When is accumulated enough quantity of matter to form a star (or atom) this accumulation of matter and energy creates magnetic fields, which define and situate the stationary orbits where the nascent planets (or electrons) must to be built and maintained. Say, the fields of magnetic force determine, measure and order the construction and conservation of all the orbital systems always.
"The expansive pressure force (magnetic force for the distribution and balance of energy in space) that is produced in the great matter accumulations is what pushes, attracts and maintains orbital ones in rotation around the nuclei in well-defined orbits (in the orbital cuts)."
3.---The dimensions (volume) of atoms are determined by the magnetic fields and orbits that the magnetic force of the nucleus takes place.
Being the magnetic force (see magnetic force in my model of Cosmos) a force of energy rebalance through the Cosmos, and its mission is to get an equality (same density) of energy in all the atoms, and for it, when bigger it is the atomic nucleus -- bigger it will be the total volume of the atom to get that equality of density (density = mass/volume).
4.---The energy levels that Bohr believed resided in electrons, because this theory contemplates it in a different way. It is the whole atom by means of its magnetic force that manages the potentials and energy levels and that in fact emits or captures energy when this energy is needed it to maintain the half density of energy explained previously.
--This way if an atom acquires a new electron, immediately its volume increases and it needs to acquire great quantity of energy to conserve its half density.
--If the atom gives an electron then its volume diminishes and the atom must to give energy to continue maintaining its half density.
--If to an atom we give great quantity of energy, this acquires it and to maintain the half density of energy its volume must to be increased, displacing to the last electron to an external orbit.
But it is the magnetic potential of the atom that makes it, but not electrons.
This explains the different longitudes of wave of energy emission from atoms, because all they have different magnetic potential according to their dimension and energetic circumstances.
5.- So the atomic nuclei, electrons, neutrinos, etc. all they are single matter that is cohered by the gravitational force. This matter (as any other one) also produces their magnetic fields according to its dimensions.
In the atomic nuclei there are not electric charges that repel themselves, neither strong interaction that attracts them; alone single matter with mutual attractive gravity force. ** Strong force is gravity. see explanation at the end.
The electric charges reside and act from the potential orbits of each atom.
Really, the electric charges on the electromagnetic potential of each orbit consist.
So, in the nuclei these electric charges don't exist.
Therefore the atomic nuclei are single mass or matter that produces their fields and magnetic orbits to their surroundings where electrons are attracted and maintained.
In the same sense, each electron (lepton) is different from any other one and creates its own magnetic fields (according to its dimensions) to their surroundings, where captures and maintains to its neutrinos.
6.- This way, the Cosmos is structured in successive levels in exponential order through the Fourth dimension, being formed any level by the sum of other smaller ones. (For example, stars are the sum of many atoms; atoms by the sum of many sub-atoms, etc.)
In this sense between a level and the following one a Lcr relationship of values exists that is 226,28 in space and time.
This way a stellar meter (or terrestrial) is equal to 226,28 atomic meters.
* * Besides it, I include in the drawing my formula for obtaining the dimensions of atoms and the situation of its electrons. In this formula Aw is the atomic weight of the atom in question.
The following one is the basic formula for the structuring of the gravitational systems (atoms, stars, etc.), which contains the structural parameters of the same ones such as mass of atoms, atomic radii, atomic density.
At the same time the formula defines us the energy balance or coefficient of density that must have atoms according to the Law of Universal Balance that tells us: "All the gravitational systems (atoms, stars, etc.) tend to have the same energy density (coefficient of density)".
Therefore any atom tends to complete the equality between its mass-energy and its volume multiply by its atomic density, just as it shows us the formula.
In this case, if an atom gives or acquires an electron and therefore, it diminishes or increases its volume, this atom must also give or to acquire energy particles for rebalancing its energy state.
As we can deduce from the general formula, in atoms their volume and atomic density grow in relation to the square root of their atomic weight.
This way, we can put the density of atoms as: Being the atomic density the ratio between the mass and volume of any atom.
URA, unit of atomic radius.
The same as with the atomic mass of the hydrogen that can be used as unit of atomic mass, the atomic radius of the hydrogen can be used as unit of atomic radius URA for getting the atomic radii of other elements.
In this case, we obtain the atomic radii of any other element multiplying this unit of atomic radius URA by the sixth root of the relative atomic mass of that element.
UMMA, Mathematical unit of atomic mass.
The mathematical unit of atomic mass in this theory is relative to the hydrogen mass, and it is getting multiplying the atomic volume of hydrogen 4/3 Pi.R^3 by the its density before exposed, which in this case is the number Pi, 3,14159.
Then, the atomic mass unit will be:
To the modulo Pi2 x R3 = 21/3 we could call it Differential of coincidence, which in our case is next to the coincidence between our decimal metric unit (in angstroms) with the atomic diameter unit (2xURA)
And the most easy formula for obtaining the atomic diameter would be:
Note.- The current gauge system of the atomic radii is erroneous because it doesn't keep in mind the inter-atomic vacuum that separates atoms among them, depending on the saturation of their last gravitational layer.
(i. e. the lithium atom with three electrons cannot has its radius three times bigger than the neon atom with 10 electrons).
In gasses this inter-atomic vacuum is very big.
Another topic relative to the dimensions of atoms is the Molecular Porosity (you can see in my model of Cosmos) that measures the distance among atoms inside melecules of materials.
As we see in the drawings, the inter-atomic vacuum is the distance or void among atoms that is caused by the repulsion among them due to its gravitational polarity, either electropositive (i.e. alkalis) or electronegative (i.e. halogens).
The electropositive polarity has more repulsion potential than the electronegative one, as we can see in the drawing.
The inter-atomic vacuum summed to the diameter of atoms gives us the separation Sp among the atomic nuclei.
Besides the gravitacional polarity, the magnetic state of saturation of atoms and molecules also propitiates and produces the interatomic vacuum.
For example, the saturation of the magnetic and gravitational layers of the noble gases drives them to take a "ideal" state of balance that eliminates any "desire or necessity" of approach toward other elements.
In this sense, the acquisition and complementation of atoms and molecules with the enough quantity of particles (energy) makes that these acquire successive states of magnetic balance and changes of state (solid, liquid, gassy) go leaving every time bigger interatomic vacuum among them.
* * We remember that magnetism (magnetic force) is synonymous of similar allotment of energy through space, with which when more it is the content of energy of any material -- more will be the state of repulsion among its atoms and molecules.
As we have seen, the gravitational polarity causes some repulsion among the chemical elements producing some void among atoms that we call inter-atomic vacuum.
The inter-atomic vacuum influences a lot in the properties of these chemical elements, as in their density, hardness, crystallization, etc. besides the properties that already have due to their gravitational polarity.
For a summary of these properties, I have divided the width of the gravitational layers in three areas (A, B and C), being the areas A and C of wide inter-atomic vacuum and being the area B of little inter-atomic vacuum. (See drawing)
Area A and C:
In these areas the inter-atomic vacuum is very big and atoms are very separate some of other, giving them the following properties.
--Plasticity: soft, spreading,
Area B: Bonds of simple directional magnetic polarity.
In this area the inter-atomic vacuum is minimum and atoms usually join according to its magnetic polarity N-S acquiring properties contrary to the previous ones.
--Little or null reactivity.
--Hardness; tendency to the crystallization; brittle materials,
"Rainbow" or physical table of the elements
Electronic shells table of the elements
Examples of distribution of shells of electrons:
Hydrogen ( 1 ); Helium ( 2 )
Carbon ( 2, 4, ); Neon ( 2, 8 )
Aluminium ( 2, 8, 3 ); Chlorine ( 2, 8, 7 ); Argon ( 2, 8, 8 )
Chromium ( 2, 8, 8, 6); Germanium ( 2, 8, 8, 14 ); Krypton ( 2, 8, 8, 18 )
Zirconium ( 2, 8, 8, 18, 4 ); Cadmium ( 2, 8 , 8, 18, 12 ); Xenon ( 2, 8, 8 ,18, 18 )
Barium ( 2, 8, 8, 18, 18, 2 ); Iridium ( 2, 8, 8, 18, 18, 23 ); Radon ( 2, 8, 8, 18, 18, 32 )
Uranium ( 2, 8, 8, 18, 18, 32, 6 )
* As we can deduce from the tables of the elements, the Pascal's Triangle is not the correct method of electrons shells distribution, but the one of layers duplication ( A,B ) with 2N2 electrons each one in ascending velue. Shells ( A, B ) = ( 2N2, 2N2).
Gravitational layers A and B: ( Rotational phase-shift )
They are the duplication of gravitation layers taken place by each one of the faces ( frontal B and posterior A ) of the atomic nuclei in rotation.
This is because of when rotating the atomic nuclei, each one of the faces (frontal B and posterior A) moves in contrary sense in relation to any external gravitational field f , and therefore, the lines of gravitation tend to be added in two different blocks, creating two types of superimposed gravitational layers: All the lines belonging to the face A unite forming the layers and gravitation fields A; and the lines of gravitation belonging to the frontal face B unite among them forming the fields and gravitational layers B.
As we can see, the first layer (1-A) doesn't have electrons due to this layer is situated inside the own atomic nucleus.
* From the Ferman atomic model postulates: In the same sense, in the big atoms due to their great cohesion and compression, their first layers 1-B, 2-A, 2-B etc., also go being described inside the nuclear space and they go getting lost, lasting with electrons alone the exterior gravitational layers.
* As we can observe, the atomic periphery is structured by means of duplicated Sh(A,B) gravitational layers of great amplitude, containing each one of them several magnetic orbits 2N2 (0, 2; 8,8; 18,18; 32, 32) to different levels and distance from the nucleus, each one of which attracts, captures and fixes to an electron.
Therefore the magnetic orbits are those that have the potential of attraction, distribution and managing of electrons, but not the central nucleus, something similar to the situation of the iron filings around a magnet.
Therefore, the atoms would work in the following way:
Below, I expose table of atomic measures:
Separation is the distance among atomic nuclei in any material.
Separation and diameter are given in amstrongs.
|Symbol ---||Name -------||A.Weight ---||Density -----||Weight (10-24g )--||Coef. Porosity -||Separation --||Radius|
|------------||------------||----- Second||-- Gravity -||Layer --- 8||-------------||-------------||-------------|
|------------||------------||----- Third||-- Gravity -||Layer --- 8||-------------||-------------||-------------|
|------------||------------||----Fourth||-- Gravity -||Layer --- 18||-------------||-------------||-------------|
|------------||------------||----- Fifth||-- Gravity -||Layer --- 18||-------------||-------------||-------------|
|------------||------------||----- Sixth||-- Gravity -||Layer --- 32||-------------||-------------||-------------|
|Eu||Europium||151,96||5,264 *||252,34||1,59 *||3,62 *||1,16|
|Yb||Ytterbium||173||6,90 *||287,28||1,39 *||3,46 *||1,188|
|------------||------------||---Seventh||-- Gravity -||Layer -----||-------------||-------------||-------------|
|Symbol ----||Name --------||A.Weight ---||Density ------||Weight (10-24g )---||Coef. Porosity --||Separation ---||Radius|
From the previous table of gases and applying the structural formula, we can deduce that the molecules of noble gases have an atom uniquely, while the other ones are bi-atomic.
The next formula is for gases, but can be used also for liquids or solids using the term atoms instead of molecules.
By the moment, to measure the ionic and covalent radii and to get a general formula that is good us for it, I will choose a middle useful value for all them (0,3 n).
Nevertheless later on I will adjust better this value and to adapt it to the different dimensions of any atom.
Examples to obtain ionic and covalent radii.
The covalent radii are very different depending on the type of molecules. Here we see a simple one.
A some complicated case
The nuclei of the gravitational systems (atoms, stars) rotate on themselves (spin) and they make to rotate and to be deformed (in spiral) to the gravitational and magnetic fields that surround them.
This makes that to be able the approaching and union of two or more atoms and to create common orbits (covalent bonds) they have to join in the polar N-S direction, because otherwise their magnetic and gravitational fields would collide producing the rejection among them.
Therefore, to come closer some atoms to other and to create the atomic connections or to build crystals, atoms must approach in the polar direction N-S or S-N.
N-S Magnetic polarity:
As we can see, the magnetic polarity N-S (magnets) is due to the result of the spin and orientation of the fields of forces (gravity and magnetic force), which can be added of rejected depending on the sense of approximation among atoms.
In the following drawing we have the way of connecting atoms to obtain the different types of covalent bonds. In the same way and N-S orientation, the ionic molecules and crystals are built.
In the drawing we see as any type of bond or crystal takes its correspondent interatomic vacuum among its atoms and molecules.
For example, in the Hexa type connection, we have to graphite or fullerene (hexa molecules) united by ionic action and they take certain interatomic vacuum among their atoms and molecules.
While diamonds (also hexa type) are great macromolecules that give less interatomic vacuum among its atoms since all they are united by bonds and not attracted by ionic action, as in graphite.
In liquid water, the interatomic vacuum produced by the repulsion due to its liquid state is compensated with the more complicated Tetra structure that take when is converted into ice (crystal.
As we can see, any diamond is a single macro-molecule, which gives it its great hardness since to break it we also have to break its atomic bonds.
(Diamonds are built by mean of hexa group of compound type (benzene type) united all them by intermolecular single bonds.
As we can see in this theory, Pi is a basic parameter in the building of atoms in such as topics as the density coefficient where Pi intervene in the relation between dimensions and mass of atoms.
In such a way, Pi should be the key to get the value of the unit of atomic mass.
This way I give a mathematical formula to obtain a approximate value for the atomic unit of mass:
This way, we can say:
Pi is the basic number to build atoms and stars and to measure the relation between their levels; between the micro and macro Cosmos.
Other parameters where Pi seems to be essential:
--The already view previously atomic density, Pi x square root of the atomic weight. 3,14 x |/ Aw.
--Lcr. As we see in the basic formula for stars (below) the lineal ratio of equivalence between stars and atoms is 222Pi = 226,28
--The FINAL or TOTAL ratio between the masses of stars and atoms (below) is the cube for the previous value 222Pi3 = 682,48
--The relation between the unit of atomic weight and the maximum atomic weight that can support the magnetic imbalance (atomic weights of the biggest atoms) it is the cube of 2Pi. 2Pi3 = 248
** Strong force is gravity.
Currently physicists tell us that in atoms gravity is minimum, almost imperceptible.
Really! This seems to be a very rare conclusion.
Let us see: The sources of the cosmic gravity reside in the atomic nuclei.
--We see as in our galaxy stars, which are some from other ones to thousands of years light, they attract themselves and this attraction is due to the gravitational force of their atomic nuclei.
--We see like in the external space, the powder and galactic particles attract themselves to form stars and this attraction is due to the gravity of the atomic nuclei.
--We see as the matter of any mass, planet, stars, etc. it is cohesive strongly for the action of the gravity that is produced by the atomic nuclei.
Therefore it is not acceptable to say that, outwardly to atoms, gravity can attract and unite masses and it can attract stars to thousands of years light, but inside the atoms, on its own sources of birth, the gravity is very weak.
Do we maybe forget that gravity decreases with the square of the distance regarding to the mass that produces this gravity?
As my cosmic theory explains, gravity on the surface of an atomic nucleus is the same one than on a star. Equally, gravity on an electron is similar to the one of an equivalent planet.
Then, why it is believed that gravity in atoms is imperceptible?
Because due to the tests to measure have been taken to end in a "hostile medium" as it is inside a gravitational field of enormous dimensions, on the earth.
Inside any star, planets, etc, all and each one of the gravitational fields of their atoms unites to form a single resultant in such a way that atoms don't act for separate, but as a unique resultant.
In the following drawing I expose my formula for the cosmic spiral, in this case with geometry characteristics.
The orbits of electrons are located and built on the orbital cuts.
The orbital cuts are the distances in that the magnetic spiral is cut with its natural radio, as we see in the previous and following drawings.
In the following drawing we see as the magnetic fields (and the gravitational one) are deformed in spiral due to the rotation of the nucleus, and where the orbital cuts and the magnetic orbits are created.
**As we can see in the drawing of the energy orbits, if in quantum mechanics instead of the Cartesian coordinates the radial coordinates had been chosen P = R'o+wt; R''o+w't; R'''o+w''t, .... the solution would be more correct, real, respectful with the forces and physical laws, etc; ....and why don't say it, ... more inteligent solution.
The magnetic orbits attract and maintain to electrons (and planets) rotating on the same ones. (From a maximum to a minimum of width according to the circumstances of each electron)
This way, the magnetic potential of any atom acts by mean of the magnetic orbits, but not on the nucleus.
The orbital cuts can be orbital cuts of the magnetic fields and orbital cuts of the gravitational fields, because as much the gravitational fields as the magnetic ones are deformed in spiral when the nucleus rotates, and therefore the two types of orbital cuts take place.
--The magnetic cuts give us the position of the orbits.
--The gravitational cuts give us the beginning and termination of each gravitational layer.
Due to inside atoms the gravity fields decrease with the square of the distance and the magnetic fields doesn't, a bigger width of the gravitational layers takes place containing more than one magnetic orbit inside them 2 N2. Also duplication of layers take place as it is explained in my cosmic model.
The stellar parameters are similar to the atomic parameters.
The main parameters that we see in the drawing are:
Sm - The star's mass.
Lcf. - Level coefficient: 123,948
The weight of bodies is due to the attraction that their gravitational fields make among them.
In our level, we can measure the whole weight of atoms, that is to say, our earth attracts not alone the atomic nuclei of the bodies, but also their gravitational fields.
However, in our star or sun we alone can measure the weight of its solar nucleus but not of its gravitational fields.
The level coefficient Lcf is the one that drives us to the total weight of our solar system with relations to the attraction that other stars make on our sun.
This parameter is also called dark matter, dark energy, hidden parameter, invisible matter, etc. But really it is the weight (and mutual attraction) of the gravity fields of stars.
R - It is the star's radius from the solar nucleus to its last planet, in the same way as in the atoms the atomic radius is the distance until its last electron.
Sw - It is the stellar weight.
Similar as in atoms the atomic weight Aw is the ratio between the weight of atoms and the unit of atomic mass, in stars the stellar weight Sw is the ratio between the star's mass and the unit of stellar mass Ums.
Ums - It is the unit of stellar mass.
The unit of stellar mass (similar as in atoms with their unit of atomic mass), it is the one that represents the smallest star, which would have alone a planet to its surroundings, situated to the Unit of Stellar Radius (Ur = 123,15 metres).
The unit of stellar mass Ums has a value of 291,0417 kilograms.
Lcr - Coefficient of lineal relation among levels.
It is the lineal ratio of distances between atoms and stars in relation to equivalent elements. The value of the Lcr is of 222Pi
Taking an equivalent atom to our solar system that could be a neon atom, of radius -100,8 m.
Mcr - Coefficient of masses among levels.
It is the relations or ratio between the mass of any stellar element and its equivalent one in atoms.
Given our satellite or moon, with weight of 257,35 grams.
If we divide this quantity for the relation coefficient of masses among levels Mcr. (556,28 ) we will have:
Cohesion of systems. -
When the gravitational systems (atoms, stars) go increasing their size, their cosmic spirals go being cohered and joining to the nucleus of the system.
In such a case when the systems are very big, the interior gravitational layers and magnetic orbits go being absorbed by the nucleus and alone last the external layers and orbits.
This way, the big systems conserve one or two external layers only and about 20 orbital ones.
Orbital cuts and orbits of electrons.
The gravitational systems such as atoms and stars are constituted by two main elements:
1.- The visible matter as the central nuclei, and the orbital ones (electrons, planets) as well as of smaller multitude of particles that rotate around the nucleus (energy particles), and by the particles that rotate around the orbital ones (neutrino, satellites or moons).
2.- The non visible energy fields as the gravitational and magnetic fields.
In fact, the visible matter or mass is simply energy fields structured into gravitational systems.
Because well, the true atomic structure is supported by the gravitational and magnetic fields that surround to the central nucleus.
This energy fields (gravitational) and force fields (magnetic) are supported and adscript to the nuclear material and therefore to each atom (or sub-atom) of the same one, with which, when the nuclear matter rotates on itself also obligates to make it to the fields of force that surround it.
When these fields of force rotate around the nucleus, these fields are deformed in spiral around this nucleus, and as consequence, the orbital cuts or distances of magnetic and gravitational balance are produced.
This circumstance is due to the cosmic energy births and is developed in straight line and when by its rotation is deformed into spiral form, this energy alone it is totally balanced in the points of the spiral that are radially aligned with their supporting atoms, say, alone in the cuts points between the spiral and the natural radius of the nucleus.
To these cut points we call orbital cuts, and these distances are where the orbital ones (electrons, planets) are located in the magnetic fields, and where begin and finish the gravitational layers.
In the following drawing we see the magnetic orbital cuts or magnetic lines, as well as the orbits of electrons.
2.- It agrees the classic physical laws (forces, motions, momentums, etc.)
3.- It is very simple; only using two forces for the complete structuring of the Cosmos: Gravity and Magnetic Force.
4.- It doesn't use Uncertainty. Situation of electrons (and planets), atomic masses, atomic radii, atomic density, etc. they are perfectly defined, structured and measured by means of mathematical formulas.
5.- It interrelates the different levels of the Cosmos (atoms, stars) by means of formulas and parameter of relation.
6.- It simplifies the types and classes of particles by means of a unique type of structuring, composition and behaviour in all them.
7.- It explains the birth of forces and motions by means of the imbalance and rebalance of the gravitational systems or natural units of energy and cosmic matter, which tries to be redistributed in the same quantity and density through the Cosmos.In this sense, the fields of magnetic and gravitational forces are the ones that produce any type of vectorial forces and motions in the Cosmos.
8.- It explains the cosmic structuring and the reason, birth and foundations of their main elements, such as space, time, energy, gravitation, magnetic force, matter, atoms, etc.
Some drawing on this theory.
A test in favour of my atomic theory as for the non-existence of well-defined nuclear particles can be given by the existence or not of neutrons as the current theories bet.
If neutrons really exist inside the atomic nuclei, then atoms would not have limitation to have any quantity of neutrons and we would find this way atoms of helium with two, three, four, five….. twenty neutrons.
The only thing required it is that any atom of helium has two protons and two electrons.
But according to my theory this is not possible since the increment of mass of an atom makes also increases its magnetic fields, and when the magnetic fields increase these produce new orbits around atoms, changing and getting new type of atoms.
Therefore here, an atomic nucleus can go increasing its mass, but alone while its magnetic fields don't increase enough to create a new orbit. When these magnetic fields get potential to create a new orbit, the atom becomes the following atom of the periodic table.
As we see, here nuclear particles don't intervene, but only the influence of the nuclear mass as a single particle that is.
Belts of Particles or asteroids (Kuiper belts)
The belts of particles are those atomic orbits (or solar orbits) not occupied by electrons (or planets) but for energy particles (or asteroids).
They are given as much in solar systems as in atoms, and these particles or asteroids are attracted by the magnetic orbits of the solar systems, or for the magnetic orbits of atoms.
Very well-known cases are the two solar orbits between Mars and Jupiter occupied by asteroids and the well-known belt of Kuiper. And at atomic level we would have as well-known the orbits of the free neutrons when not been able to capture to any electron to form an atom of hydrogen.
This is the summary of my atomic model carried out from 1975 to 1992 mainly.
To finish, let me express a personal thought:
"Thinking that things and physical circumstances don't exist until we get discover or observe them, is of such stupidity, hubris and egocentrism that only those lacking in intelligence, sensitivity or humility can continue this belief without feeling true scientific shame."